Computer based math practice problems are helpful in training children how to use math skills in real life while still using tried and true methods of testing. As with the old-school techniques, modern math programs also use multiple choice, fill in the blank and true or false questions to quiz students.
A parent must know what level of math and any other subject, for that matter, that their child is performing at every school year. When children enter kindergarten and the school recommends that children know their ABC's and know how to count to twenty or whatever number, it is the parent's responsibility to make sure the child is prepared prior to enrolling in school.
Get in the Kitchen! I was very hesitant for a while with my son when it came to the kitchen. I worried about the GIANT mess that would be left when he was done "helping". You don't even have to take on the entire project with them! You can start small and let your child help with measuring certain ingredients. You can modify the difficulty of the 'lesson' by talking about the different kinds of measuring cups and seeing what other measurements can also add up to equal one cup, etc.
Parents can assist with developing a lot of the fundamental skills needed for children to succeed in math when they attend school. Parents can do things that will support the schools and hopefully the schools will do the rest.