I have observed teachers who really challenge their students to achieve higher order thinking These teachers take their students as early as the Second Grade and teach them how to add, subtract, multiply and divide using only their bran. We call this Mental Math. When I observed a Second Grade Class that had their students mentally answering math computation questions, I put my own son in that class. Shortly after being enrolled, He, too, learned how to do Mental Math. From that point on, math was my son's best subject. Teachers can really make a difference and parents can help affect change.
The classes can be taught at the various colleges or universities in the local area. This is a community outreach for the colleges and universities, but children will develop social and academic skills that will carry over to their classroom and on to adulthood.
Computer based math practice problems are helpful in training children how to use math skills in real life while still using tried and true methods of testing. As with the old-school techniques, modern math programs also use multiple choice, fill in the blank and true or false questions to quiz students.
Also, when the child is in the second or third grade and their child can't add simple two digit numbers, it is up to the parent to make sure that their child gets the extra help needed to become successful. Parents cannot wait on the school every time their child has an academic deficiency. Part of being a good parent is making sure that your child functions at the correct grade level throughout their academic career.