Elementary teachers and parents play the biggest role in a child's mathematical development, especially from Kindergarten through Fourth Grade. Time spent in school learning math or not learning math can never be replaced. Parents should make sure the elementary math teacher is knowledgeable and is a good teacher.
Go on a counting scavenger hunt! For young children, you can keep the hunt simple and indoors, go on a hunt and count how many bedrooms, windows, doors, bathrooms, etc are in your house. For older children, you can even take this adventure outside. Look for certain kinds of animals, plants, flowers, you name it! Add in another element of fun (for any age) and create a graph for them to track their finds!
The same general idea worked when it came to my son's Lego's! It was a great way to work on patterns and following directions! I would draw a pattern on paper for him to copy and recreate with his Legos. It not only helped with his color recognition, but his problem solving skills, fine motor skills and he didn't even know he was doing math!!
In order to develop a student that has good math skills, a parent must play a key role in the learning process. In addition to parents, teachers and other family members are very important to a child's mathematical development.