I have observed teachers who really challenge their students to achieve higher order thinking These teachers take their students as early as the Second Grade and teach them how to add, subtract, multiply and divide using only their bran. We call this Mental Math. When I observed a Second Grade Class that had their students mentally answering math computation questions, I put my own son in that class. Shortly after being enrolled, He, too, learned how to do Mental Math. From that point on, math was my son's best subject. Teachers can really make a difference and parents can help affect change.
A parent must know what level of math and any other subject, for that matter, that their child is performing at every school year. When children enter kindergarten and the school recommends that children know their ABC's and know how to count to twenty or whatever number, it is the parent's responsibility to make sure the child is prepared prior to enrolling in school.
Some have a time limit to complete tasks, much like a game. If the math problems are not completed in time, a buzzer sounds indicating that they are out of time. This raises the competitive level from simply completing tasks to competing for how quickly they can do it, and do it correctly.
The classes can be taught at the various colleges or universities in the local area. This is a community outreach for the colleges and universities, but children will develop social and academic skills that will carry over to their classroom and on to adulthood.